The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a relatively recent scientific discovery, with its unearthing being owed largely to research on the pharmacological effects of the Cannabis genus conducted over the last 60 years. This broad ranging neuromodulatory system exhibits key functions across many different organ systems, tissues, cells and physiological settings and is comprised of specific G-Protein coupled receptors, endogenous ligands that bind with these receptors and the enzymes which are responsible for ligand synthesis and degradation. This talk will focus upon the specific anatomy of the ECS and explore the physiological effects it has in regulating many facets of homeostatic control, including inflammation, regulation of stress and emotions, metabolism, memory and neural development. ECS dysfunction in the scientific literature will also be explored, focusing on the cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal and immune systems. Further, an examination into how various phytocannabinoids from the Cannabis genus interact with the Endocannabinoid system will also be highlighted. The talk will conclude with a discussion about ECS variability and potential drug interactions.